In infants, water with a high level of calcium carbonate (i.e. hard water) may be associated with an increased risk of atopic eczema1
Irritants can disturb skin barrier function and may include detergents contained in soaps, shampoos, shower gels, bubble bath and hand washes, including "soap-free" products2,3
Air conditioning and inadequate ventilation may result in increased exposure to allergens, e.g. house dust mites and pollens2
In children it has been shown that nylon clothing, house dust, unfamiliar pets, sweating and shampoo can cause eczema flares4
Keeping a diary about your activities, lifestyle, diet and work and your symptoms may help you to identify possible factors that make your eczema worse.
Perkin MR, Craven J, Logan K et al. Association between domestic water hardness, chlorine and atopic dermatitis risk in early life: a population-based cross-sectional study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2016;138:509--16.
Proksch E, Folster-Holst R, Jensen J-M. Skin barrier function, epidermal proliferation and differentiation in eczema. J Dermatol Sci 2006;43:159--169.
Moncrieff G, Cork M, Lawton S et al. Use of emollients in dry skin conditions: consensus statement. Clin Exp Dermatol 2013;38:231--8.
Langan SM, Silcocks P, Williams HC. What causes flares of eczema in children? Br J Dermatol 2009;161:640--6.